and Crafts Movement
Mainly (but not exclusively) active in England and the United States
Glasgow School of Art by Charles Rennie Mackintosh Gamble House by Green and Green Pasadena Cal.
link to Charles Rennie Mackintosh and to the Gamble House by Green and Green
"To give people pleasure in the things they must perforce use, that is one great office of decoration; to give people pleasure in the things they must perforce make, that is the other use of it."
Do you think, for instance, that we object to machinery? I tell you we reverence it; we reverence it when it does its proper work, when it relieves man from ignoble and soulless labour, not when it seeks to do that which is valuable only when wrought by the hands and hearts of men. Let us have no machine-made ornament at all; it is all bad and worthless and ugly. And let us not mistake the means of civilisation for the end of civilisation; steam-engine, telephone and the like, are all wonderful, but remember that their value depends entirely on the noble uses we make of them, on the noble spirit in which we employ them, not on the things themselves.
It is, no doubt, a great advantage to talk to a man at the Antipodes through a telephone; its advantage depends entirely on the value of what the two men have to say to one another. If one merely shrieks slander through a tube and the other whispers folly into a wire, do not think that anybody is very much benefited by the invention.
Morris, in his 1884 lectures on "Art and Socialism," vividly described
the blight of spreading cities:
The spreading sore of London,
swallowing up, with its loathsome-ness, field and wood and heath . . .
mocking our feeble efforts to deal even with its minor evils of smoke
laden sky and befouled river; the black horror and reckless squalor of
our manufacturing districts; . . . not only are London and other great
commercial cities mere masses of sordidness, filth, and squalor ... ;
not only have whole counties of England, and the heavens that hang over
them, disap-peared beneath a crust of unutterable grime, but the
disease . . . spreads out all over the country.
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Sussex Hall House
Inspiratiom for the Arts and Carfts movement; Traditional British domestic architecture.