Historical Timeline of Concrete
12,000,000 BC
Reactions between limestone and oil shale during spontaneous combustion occurred in Israel to form a natural deposit of cement compounds.  
3000 BC
Egyptians used mud mixed with straw to bind dried bricks. Also furthered the discovery of lime and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building the Pyramids 
3000 BC
Used cementitious materials to hold bamboo together in their boats and in the Great Wall. 
300 BC
Romans used slaked lime a volcanic ash called pozzuolana, found near Pozzouli by the bay of Naples. They used lime as a cementitious material. Pliny reported a mortar mixture of 1 part lime to 4 parts sand. Vitruvius reported a 2 parts pozzolana to 1 part lime. Animal fat, milk, and blood were used as admixtures  
193 BC
of PorticuHouse s Aemelia made of bound stones to form concrete 
200 AD
The Pantheon


After 400 AD
The art of Concrete was lost after the fall of the Roman Empire 
Joseph Moxon wrote about a hidden fire in heated lime that  
appears upon the addition of water. 
John Smeaton, British Engineer, rediscovered hydraulic cement through repeated testing of mortar in both fresh and salt water 
Link to Smeaton documents: one two

Bry Higgins was issued a patent for hydraulic cement (stucco) for exterior plastering use. 
James Parker from England patented a natural hydraulic cement by calcining nodules of impure limestone containing clay, called Parker’s Cement or Roman Cement.
1812 -1813
Louis Vicat of France prepared artificial hydraulic lime by calcining synthetic mixtures of limestone and clay. 
Maurice St. Leger was issued patents for hydraulic cement. 
Canvass White, American Engineer, found rock deposits in Madison, County, New York, that made hydraulic cement with little processing 
John Tickell and Abraham Chambers were issued more hydraulic cement patents. 
James Frost of England prepared artificial hydraulic lime like Vicat’s and called it British Cement. 
Joseph Aspdin, bricklayer and mason in Leeds, England, patented what he called portland cement, since it resembled the stone quarried on the Isle of Portland off the British coast. 
Erie Canal created the first great demand for cement in the US
I. K. Brunel is credited with the first engineering application of portland cement, which was used to fill a breach in the Thames Tunnel. 
Jean-Louis Lambot was the first to use reinforcing in boats  
 see this website with a short history of concrete


W. Wilkinson of Newcastle introduced reinforced concrete in the building of houses; in 1854 he applied for a patent for the “construction of fireproof dwellings, warehouses, other buildings and parts of the same”. Wilkinson erected a small two-storey servant’s cottage, reinforcing the concrete floor and roof with iron bars and wire rope; he built several structures of this kind and he is believed to have built the first reinforced concrete building.

Portland cement used in the construction of the London sewer system 
Joseph Monier patented a design for reinforces garden tubs, beams and posts 
The fist recorded shipment of portland cement to the US 
Francois Coignet, a builder in France, responsible for the first widespread use of concrete in buildings 

 Francois Hennebique Patents the Hennebique system
Description and picture

William E. Ward builds the first landmark building in reinforced concrete in Port Chester, NY. Designed by Architect Robert Mook 

  larger picture here
  Interesting article here

Ward delivered a paper on the house to the Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
Earnest L. Ransom patented a reinforcing system using twisted rods. 

"1884 – Leslie Ransom receives U.S. patent for rebar. When it became clear that reinforcement was needed in concrete construction Ransom obtained used frayed cables from San Francisco’s cable car companies and laid them in the forms prior to pouring the concrete. From these experiments Ransom designed and patented rebar – the reinforcing steel that is still used in construction.
F. Ransome patented a slightly tilted horizontal kiln which could be rotated so the material moved gradually form one end to the other 
Henri Le Chatelier of France established oxide ratios to prepare the proper amount of lime to produce portland cement. He named the components: Alite (tricalcium silicate), Belite (dicalcium silicate), and Celite (tetracalcium aluminoferrite). He proposed that hardening is caused by the formation of crystalline products of the reaction between cement and water. 
The first concrete reinforced bridge is built.  
George Bartholomew placed the first concrete street in the USA in Bellefontaine, OH. which still exists. 
Ingalls bldg. using the Ransome system, was the first concrete skyscraper.  story

Thomas Edison was a pioneer in the further development of the rotary kiln. 
link to Thomas Edison's Concrete House Venture
More on the Thomas Edison houses
August Perret makes concrete an acceptable architectural material 
Perre builds 25 bis Rue Franklin and the Theatre Champs Elysee 

Rue Franklin Paris by Auguste Perret; plan below, showing great openness


Portland Cement Association founded 

cement production animation

The US Bureau of Standards and the American Society for testing Materials established a standard formula for portland cement 
Mies van der Rohe proposes concrete high-rises
The tallest concrete building was built – 230 ft., the Medical Arts bldg., Dallas 
Notre Dame du Raincy 
A concrete church by Auguste Perret.
Eugene Freyssinet develops successful pre-stressed concrete 
Eduardo Torroja, designed the first thin shelled roof at Algeciras 

Eduardo Torroja, designed the Madrid Hippodrome. 


The first major concrete dams, Hoover Dam and Grand Coulee Dam, were built. 

 Look at the construction of the new Hoover dam by-pass bridge
Compare with the Millau bridge in France
Pier Luigi Nervi built the hangers for the Italian Air Force using thin shell construction 
Le Corbusier builds Villa Savoye 

Frank Lloyd Wright was the one of the first to exploit the cantilever at Fallingwater.
Portland Cement Laboratories perfect air-entrained concrete 

FLLW builds the Guggenheim made of reinforced concrete 
Le Corbusier builds Ronchamp 
Felix Candela masters the concrete shell 
Felix Candela builds the restaurant at Xochimilco

Executive House Hotel, Chicago, exceeds the Medical Arts record at 371 ft. 
Le Corbusier builds La Tourette 
Bank of Georgia Building in Atlanta beats Executive House at 391 ft. 
Le Corbusier builds the government complex at Chandigara India 
Bertrand Goldberg’s twin towers at Marina City marked the  
beginning of the use of reinforced concrete in modern skyscrapers and set the height record to 588 ft. 
1000 Lake Shore Drive beats Marina City at 640 ft. 6000 psi concrete in the lower columns was used for the first time. 
Place Victoria in Montreal, ht 624 ft. using 6000psi concrete columns 

First concrete domed sport structure, the Assembly Hall, was constructed at The University of Illinois, at Urbana-Champaign. 
look here: http://www.concretecontractor.com/concrete-construction-projects/assembly-hall/
Lake Point Towers, 70 stories, 645 ft. 7500 psi concrete 
One Shell Plaza, Houston, ht 714 ft., using 6000 psi concrete 
Fiber reinforcement in concrete was introduced. 
Water Tower Place, 859 ft., 9000psi conc. using superplasticizers 
Peak shipment of portland cement to the US increased to nearly 3 million barrels 
The "highest strength" concrete was used in building the Union Plaza constructed in Seattle, Washington. 
Scotia Plaza Building, Toronto, 907 ft.  
311S Wacker and Two Prudential Plaza in Chicago sets new height record at 920 ft. 
Petronas Twin Towers, 1476 ft. 

Reinforced Concrete, Preliminary design for Architects and Builders; R.E. Schaeffer, 1992 McGraw-Hill Inc.