Notes are done by students as personal study guides.

Prof. Norbert Schoenauer does not take responsibility for their accuracy.


1) New York City. Concentrated in cities high rise apartment buildings complement an urban lifestyle. They enable easy access to public eminities, efficient land use occupancy. This makes mass transit feasible. Occupants can share the cost of luxuries like swimming pool, sauna and electric heating which they could not have afforded individually. They provide spectacular views and also give a feeling of security like those provided by the medieval towers dwellings. Apatrment buildings are also suitable for small families and single families.

2) New York : Shadow of the World Trade Centre. The disadvantages of high rise apartment buildings are many. The structures cause a loss of human scale. The apartments are usually not designed for enough acoustic privacy. Children do not get enough room to play. Sense of community between neighbours is reduced, due to which self policing by residents is not possible. They are designed with very regard for outdoor spatial definition. The structure has to be designed for deeper foundations, lateral wind bracing, more reinforcement in the columns, higher earthquake resistance, mechanical pressure equalisation, temperature differentials between outside and inside as the height increases, bank of elevators for vertical transportation, greater fire hazards etc.

3 ) Berlin. Hansa district. Gropius Stadt

4) Mies van der Rohe. Lake shore Drive These apartments represent an important milestone in American postwar high-rise housing design. These twin 26-story steel and glass cooperative apartments inspired many residential buildings throughout North America and beyond. It was beset from the outset with elevator problems with excessive waiting time. There are only self-service elevators at 400 feet per minute in each tower. Today's standards would demand at least two zoned elevator banks with two cabs each, with one bank serving the first thirteen residential floors, and the second bank the balance.

5) Lake shore Drive. As it was sheathed entirely in glass, the building's heat gain from the summer sun, particularly on the west side, was a problem and was corrected by addition of roller shades set close to the glass and several room air conditioners set in the movable low pane of the windows. To prevent marring the pristine external appearance of the building; the air condition units were installed projecting into the apartments.

6) Lake shore Drive: South Tower This tower has four six-room apartments.

7) Le Corbusier, conceptual land use sketch for high rise apartment buildings. "the-tower-in-the-park" concept as well as the "vertical garden city" concept was advocated by Le Corbusier many years prior to the Unite'

8) Unite' d'Habitation. Nantes. Apartments are arranged in a single block and lifted well above the ground by huge pilotis. No resident has direct access from the dwelling to a garden or patio, instead all have balconies. All dwellers have internal access to a shopping center, day-care nursery, kindergarten, gymnasium and a roof terrace with a swimming and wading pool. The narrow dwellings have good acoustical privacy from their neighbours and, most being through-units, they afford good cross ventilation and exposure on two sides. In keeping with the typical compromise of the modern movement most apartments face East and West and only a very few dwellings, located on the south gable- end, have a southern exposure, but, then, no cross ventilation. Three floors share a central double-loaded corridor, an internal street, with apartments wrapped around it

9) Frank Lloyd Wright

10) Frank Lloyd Wright. The Illinois. Mile high skyscraper

11) Chicago

12) Lake Point Towers

13) Paris

14) Paris

15) Denmark
"the-tower-in-the-park" often fails because of poor spatial definition and no maintainance of the outdoor spaces.

16) Amsterdam

17) Russia, Moscow

18) Cairo: Point block.
Modelled on American precedents, high-rise housing unfortunately were copied in many countries around the world. Often they are built as proof of technological progress, in spite of the fact that they may have been socially inappropriate, as well as economically and environmentally incongruous to their setting.

19) Niameg, Niger

20) Hong Kong

21) Hong Kong. "Wonderland Villas"

22) Shanghai

23) Japan

24) Mies van der Rohe. "Tour-sur-Parc"

25) Mies van der Rohe. Westmount Square

26) Montreal, "Fort de la Montagne"

27) Montreal, "Olympic Village"

28) Montreal, "Le Sanctuaire du Mount Royal"

29) Montreal, "Tropics North"

30) Montreal, "Tropics North"

31) Gradient Velocity.
High wind velocity has a bearing not only on higher construction costs, but also greater heat loss. With increased height there is also a slight decrease in air temperature. However, lower temperatures in conjunction with greater wind force results in a wind-chill factor that adversely effects the heating economy of the buildings. The greater the wind velocity, the greater the amount of heat loss through exterior walls and roof of a building.

32) Wind effects due to high rise buildings. Turbulences like the 'Monroe effect' and the venturi effect cause unfavourable micro climate in and around high-rise buildings in urban areas.

33) Ultramar, Montreal

34) Philadelphia, Society Hill. I.M. Pei.

35) A zealous pursuit of freeing the "maximum" area at ground level for outdoor spaces, rather than an "optimum" one, resulted in many postwar high rise housing projects having a building site coverage of less than 10%. However a mid-rise six- story housing development with a 50% ground coverage could have been a viable design alternative.

36) San Fransisco, "388 Market Street"

37) San Fransisco, "388 Market Street"

38) Architectonica, "The Atlantis Apartments" This condominium apartment building is 20 stories high with only 96 apartment units.

39)Architectonica, "The Atlantis Apartments" Sky court detail. A large 50 ft. (15.24 m) cube was carved out of the building, near the middle and at the tenth floor level, a void that is used as a sky patio with a jacuzzi.

40) Architectonica, "The Atlantis Apartments" East end view. On the semi-circular east side of the building are the large luxury suites with a view over the sea.