Notes are done by students as personal study guides.

Prof. Norbert Schoenauer does not take responsibility for their accuracy.

1)The 'L' shape house complements the suburban need for greater privacy and freedom more than the single family detached house. In the first instance the house sits in the midst of a garden. creating undefined left-over negative spaces around it . In the second instance the house embraces the garden. a defined positive space is created. The open space thus created is more private than in the first case. By its very nature as a inward oriented house form it cannot be overlooked from anywhere by the neighbours, hence occupants can exercise more freedom and in turn are more tolerable towards the people who live around them. The enclosed court also affords better microclimate as it is better protected from the sun and the wind. The 'L' shape affords a greater articulation between the private and public zones of the house. It enables better safety; reduces theives getaway, and allows a stagewise exposure for children from home to court to common park area behind the houses till they finally need to go out on the front street (action-radius concept.)

2) The 'L' shaped house form shows comparable occupation densities to that of a medium rise house form and a much greater density than the single family detached house form. Considering the fact that 80% of the environment consists of the single family detached house one can imagine how poorly land is utilised.

3 ) Courtyard house in Bogota shows the inclusion of two courtyards . A central one around which the principal rooms are arranged and a smaller one around which the kitchen is planned. The courtyard was considered as the occupants "own well from heaven."

4) Court-garden houses surpass the detached house: in the provision of real privacy to their occupants and in land use efficiency.

5) Courtyard of house in Columbia.

6) Courtyard House in Columbia.The private garden of the courtyard house helps in creating a microclimate for the house. In summer the warm air rises in the court to create a current through the house, while the cool breeze sinks low in the night to cool the house.

7) Comparison between quality of open spaces in a single family detached house and a courtyard or 'L' shaped house. The latter having an inward character provides more privacy and freedom than the former where the land is fragmented and exposed to the scrutiny of neighbours and passers-by.

8) Extent of shaded area in the courtyard at different times of the year shows that at least some part of the court remains in shade through the year. The comfort zones created in the court can be enjoyed as there are opportunities to enjoy the shade and the warmth in complete privacy.

9) In the summer when the sun-rays are close to vertical the overhang around the house prevents overheating in the house. Also the surface of the court garden will reflect or absorb heat if it is paved or green surface respectively and should be designed accordingly.

10) In winter when the sun rays are at a slant the paved or snow- covered surface of the court can reflect the rays into the house.

11) As the snow laden wind collides against the court garden walls it is directed in the linear or upward direction so that the snow gathered on the windward side of the house is much lesser. Accumulation of snow on the leeward side due to slipping off the roof is a problem common to the court-garden house as well as the single family detached house.

12) If the court-garden which is covered with a green surface or with a porous paving like brick or stone is watered it cools gradually causing cooling due to evaporation and also helps in increasing humidity in the microclimate.

13) The court garden provides exclusiveness and extreme privacy so that people can put their open space to the use they require the most, weather it was for storage or play or personal preferances of aesthetics.

14) Two arrangements of the 'L' shaped house show different extents of acoustical privacy. The point end of the compound wall act as a concentric focus and amplify noise while the mass of the houe diffuse the sound in several directions.

15) The 'L' shaped house plan can be planned according to the peculiar site to create efficient and exciting designs at different levels of view.

16) The 'action-radius.' Steen Eiler Rasmussen. The court garden provides a secure transition for the child from the interiors of the house to the street beyond.

17) 'L' shaped houses, 1938 Ludwig Hilberseimer.This arrangement of the 'L' shaped house reduces the number of vehicular accesses needed. It can enhance interaction between neighbours.

18) As a viable alternative to the single family detached house, the court-garden house was rediscoverd during the late '20s in Germany among others by Mies Van der Rohe . The court-garden provided a solution to dissolving the boundaries between outside and inside in an area of high built up density.

19) Residence. Cambridge Massachusetts. Phillip Johnson. 1942. Rockefeller Guest House.

20) The garage provides direct access into the court-garden. It also acts as an acoustic buffer between the adjoining houses. Externally, it also distinguishes each individual house.

21) A clever design and layout of the houses modulates the street width in such a way that speeding is just not possible.No signs for regulation of traffic are then necessary.

22) Kingohusene, 1960. John Utzon The site plan may serve as an example of sensitively planned and designed courtyard house clusters, each with a garage accessible from safe local cul-de-sacs so designed that they do not lend themselves for high speed motor car traffic.

23)Court garden houses for middle income group. Kingohusene.

24)Kingohusene,1960. John Utzon. The study room was an exclusive detached room which could be used as a private guest room when needed.

25) John Utzon. Since the idea of a suburb in the first place was to get away from it all, the residents decided to leave the outdoors untended and wild.

26) Kingohusene. 1976. View of the courtyard.

27) Court-garden house development at Fredensborg (1962-3) near Copenhagen.

28)Fredsenborg. Utzon.

29)Fredsenborg. Utzon.

30)Court-Garden Housing. Fredsenborg. Utzon. Right angled pavings instead of curved ones keep traffic slow.

31) One of the largest courtyard house developments in northern Europe for lower income groups, was built between 1966and 1968 at Albertslund. Houses are constructed of prefabricated elements. designed by the architects Viggo Moller-Jensen, Tyge Arnfred, Mogens J, Pedersen and Jorn Ole Sorensen.

32) Albertslund.

33) Residential development at Galgabaken. (1972-74), J.P.Storgard.Constructed of precast concrete building elements, the cruciform houses with two courtyards were designed with two courtyards were designed with a built-in flexibility enabling their occupants to sub-let, without any inconvinience, a part of the house with its own private courtyard.

34) Galgabaken

35) Atrium Houses. Bergen

36) Harlow . Courtgarden house. planned to be pedestrian friendly.

37) Covered central passage between the 'L' shaped houses. Harlow New Town Court garden house. Micheal Neylon.

38) Walsgraw, Coventry . Throne and Baston.

39) Milton Keynes village. Courtyard house.

40) Milton Keynes. courtyard house plan.

41) Milton Keynes Calverton End. courtyard house

42) Mulheim Ruhe.

43) Mulheim Ruhe The ground +1 structure houses enclose courtyards between them.

44) Eichler House. Anshen and Allen . San Fransisco. This is an example of a single family detached house which has a courtyard within as well as sits within a garden. This enables a common private open space for the house as well as private open spaces for each room in the house.

45) The Sert House. 1958. A court garden house as a testimony to the livability of this swelling type even in northerly climates than that of Spain.

46) Outdoor Dining space. Sert's House.

47) 'La Luz' adobe luxury houses.

48) 'La Luz' adobe luxury house.

49) Court House, 1956. Serge Chalmayeff. Different typologies of the 'L' shaped house enclose different qualities of open spaces.

50) The Californian, 1960s. Barken, Arrigoni and Ross.

51) Beacon Hill. Ottawa. Houses were staggered for better land use efficiency and privacy.

52) Beacon Hill. Ottawa.

53) Beacon Hill Ottawa. View of courtyard.

54) Farum. The patio concept is incorporated in apartment building type. Building is raised on stilts to accomodate parking below. The apartments are stepped back on the south side.

55) Terrace patios. Farum.

56) Farum. Railing and planter ensure privacy on the lower floor.

57) Patios in apartment buildings.