THINK TANK DRINK TANK

   
     Aerial Photo 
Arts Program

ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGRAM:
Organisational Diagram

Departmental spaces (academic)

Public space (café and art gallery)

Landscaping (functional)

Common areas (classrooms, auditoriums, elevators, lobby)


 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS:

•    Faculty of Arts (founded in 1843) is one of the oldest and one of the largest in Canada: 5000 undergraduates, 1000 graduates, 250 full-time staff.
•    Consolidate the Faculty into one area (it is currently spread out over 20 or so buildings throughout the campus)
•    Faculty lacks a center of gravity, a core.
•    What will happened to existing facilities once new building is created
•    All building along Dr. Penfield between Stanley and Pine belong to McGill, except pumping station and apartment building on McTavish
•    Parking and vehicular access for handicapped (visitor parking is not required)
•    Art gallery: encourages public enteraction with university and:
This very public interface demands the the building be an inviting and non-intimidating place where visitors, students and faculty feel at ease. The building's spatial organization must be intelligible, its public spaces bright and its ambiance welcoming. (Sheppard, p.24)
•    "The building must speak of the campus, of its neighbourhood and of Montreal, without resorting to a replication of the surrounding architecture." (Sheppard, p.26)
•    all spaces in continual use must have windows, and these must be operable
•    the building should be clearly interconnected to allow for a continuous passage
•     lobby:
Not only does the main lobby give the visitor the first impression of the Faculty, but to some degree sets the architectural tone for the entire building. [...] The lobby must be generous in height and breadth and have a major window onto the street. [...] To be effective, the lobby should be designed as a naturally-lit centre of this inter-connective space and should contain a principal information desk or porter's office. (Sheppard, p.29)
•    no classroom or seminar room should be designated as an exclusive-use facility of any department
•    washrooms should be located on every floor except the ground floor (for security reasons)


Program

Departments

Cultural Studies
East Asian Studies
English and French Language
French Language and Literature
German Studies
Hispanic Studies
Russian and Slavic Studies
Jewish Studies
Linguistics
Art History/Communication


Common areas:
large seminar/meeting rooms, classrooms, auditoriums, research offices, art gallery, café, lobby and circulation, washrooms, elevators, services, mechanical/service rooms


Additions to program (suggestions):
Computer Lab
Greenhouse
Bike racks/storage


Computer Room
Similar to existing facilities in the Redpath Library. Shared between the Departments, for student use; research, access to library catalogues, communication, etc. Reqiures special wiring and ventilation.

Greenhouse
Could be used for indirect heat gain. Could house water treatment facilities (living machines). Could act as meeting place and allows for year-round vegetation.


Being a sustainably designed building on campus, it provides the opportunity to inform its users about how it is functioning. These methods should be incorporated into the architectural language of the building but could also be accomplished through use of displays or through the internet.

The landscaping for all of the proposed buildings is an important aspect of the design. The lanscpaing should be seen as part of the building itself for it too if functional and will be the first layer of the building envelope, and thus the most public.

Daylighting Rule of Thumb
(Ramsey/Sleeper, p.57)

 
Building Configurations
(Ramsey/Sleeper, p.58)

Optimal building depth to allow daylight penetration.

Minimum with of corridors: 1100mm
(NBC 3.3.1.9.1))



Various building configuration strategies to allow natural daylighting throughout a large portion of the building.

Long side of building should face south to capitalize on solar heat gain.

Precedents:
Adam Joseph Lewis Centre for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Ohio (2000)
William McDonough and Partners


Adam Lewis 1 Adam Lewis 2
Adam Lewis 3

There are many remarkable things about the Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, but none more so than its system for purifying wastewater to be reused for non-potable uses. The room (greenhouse) is filled with light and greenery, two of the components necessary to break down the impurities, and it was not an unpleasant place to be.
David Orr believes passionately that buildings should teach, especially those on college campuses, and in that regard this building succeeds brilliantly, beginning with an interactive data console to be located near the entrance. Visitors will be able to query the building and measure its performance.
"Most of our buildings tell us none of that. What they do teach, according to Orr, is that locality is unimportant, energy is cheap and to be wasted, and that the materials used, where they came from and how they will be disposed of are well immaterial."
The lessons conveyed by the building are apparent throughout. It tells its occupants, through its use of durable and low maintenance materials but high in recycled content, that resource conservation is important. It emphasizes user health and well-being through the selection of low-VOC materials, paints and adhesives, and through the abundance of daylight, operable windows and 100 percent fresh air provided for all regularly occupied spaces. Both the mechanical systems and the solar design continually demonstrate methodologies for reducing energy use. It values our forests by requiring that all wood products are supplied according to the standards and specification language endorsed by the Forest Stewardship Council. The previously mentioned Living Machine teaches the natural purification processes of ponds and marshes.
All landscaping is indigenous, comprised of the species commonly found in northeastern Ohio.


PROJECT GOALS
•    Discharge no wastewater, i.e., drinking water in, drinking water out.
•    Generate more electricity than it uses.
•    Use no materials known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or endocrine disrupters.
•    Use energy and materials with great efficiency.
•    Promote confidence with environmental technologies.
•    Use products and materials grown or manufactured sustainably.
•    Landscape to promote biological diversity.
•    Promote analytical skill in assessing full costs over the lifetime of the building.
•    Promote ecological competence and mindfulness of place.
•    Become, in its design and operations, genuinely pedagogical.
•    Meet rigorous requirements for full-cost accounting.

PROJECT DATA
Two-stories
13,600 square feet
Atrium
Workspaces
Auditorium (100 seats)
Resource center
Faculty offices
Administrative offices
Conference room
Kitchen
Living machine

The Lewis Center consists of two structures: a two-story main building that houses classrooms, faculty offices and a two-story atrium; and a connected structure that hosts a 100-seat auditorium and a solarium. Its brick exterior makes reference to the campus's turn-of-the-century building style, while its use of glass curtain wall and its curved roofs add a touch of modernism.
Dominating the interior is an exposed curved ceiling, which is supported by 13 arched glulam wood beams and sheathed with white fir plywood panels. Interior walls do not extend to the ceiling, creating open space throughout the upper portions of the building for light to pass and to further expose the timber ceiling.

The materials were also selected for their durability and low maintenance
Adam Lewis 4

Building siting. The building is oriented on an east-west axis to take advantage of daylight and solar heat gain. All of major classrooms are situated along the southern exposure to maximize daylight.
Solar heat gain. The thermal mass of the building's concrete floors and exposed masonry walls helps to retain and reradiate heat.
Overhanging eaves and a vine-covered trellis on the south elevation help to shade the building, and an earth berm along the north wall further insulates the wall.
Fresh air. Natural ventilation is utilized in all occupied spaces via operable windows to supplement conditioned air supplied through the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.
Geothermal energy. The center utilizes 24 geothermal wells to heat and cool the space. Water circulates through closed-loop pipes to water-source heat pumps located in each space throughout the building.

For McDonough, the notion of sustainable design isn't limited to a laundry list of efficiency measures. "A sustainable building is much richer than a green building," he says. "Sustainable design incorporates culture, art, society, economics - a quality of life. It's not just a simple issue of energy efficiency."


Precedents:
Bauhaus Building, Dessau (1925-26)
Walter Gropius


Bauhaus 1

Bauhaus 2 Bauhaus 3

Clear expression of the various wings of the school around the pinwheel plan. Each function is delegated to a separate wing connected by a bridge housing the administrative offices.
Includes student housing as part of overall building.

SOURCES:
Books
Programme On Educational Building (PEB). Redefining the Place to Learn. France: OECD, 1995.

Programme On Educational Building (PEB). Designs for Learning: 55 Exemplary Educational Facilities. France: OECD, 2001.

Ramsey, Charles George and Harold Reeve Sleeper. Architectural Graphic Standards (9th Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1994.

Nerdinger, Winfred. Walter Gropius. Berlin: Bauhaus-Archiv, 1985.

Websites
http://www.ecoschools.com/GreenBuilding/GreenBuilding_wSidebar.html
(EcoSchools homepage – links to various sustainably designed schools)

http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/
(links to other projects by McDonough + Partners)

http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/projects/p_oberlin.html
(architect’s brief project summary – contains links to other sites which describe project in detail)

http://www.oberlin.edu/envs/ajlc/
(extensive site – covering every detail of the building with live feeds of building’s systems and energy consumption)

http://www.metropolismag.com/html/content_0801/mcd/index.html
(interview with McDonough – Metropolis Magazine Aug/Sept 2001)

http://www.isdesignet.com/Magazine/Oct%2700/eco.html
(online article by Penny Bonda)

http://www.bdcmag.com/index.asp?layout=story&publication=bdc&articleid=CA68676&webzine=bdc&stt=000
(online article by Dave Barista)

http://www.jesticowhiles.co.uk/
(Jestico + Whiles homepage - Open University Business School in Milton Keynes (2001) and Museum of Welsh Life, St. Fagans (1999))

http://www.pprc.org/pprc/pubs/topics/schools/doit.html
(describes three sustainably designed schools)

http://www.truexcullins.com/current/index.html
(Truex Cullins and Partners Architects - Vermont Law School’s new classroom building)

http://www.aia.org/pia/cote/topten_2001/03_66_MontgomeryCampus/
(Montgomery Campus, California College of Arts and Crafts, San Francisco
William Leddy - TLMS Architects)

Periodicals
Truppin, Andrea. “William McDonough: 1999 Designer of the Year.” Interiors January 1999: 95-117.

Other
Rocky Mountain Institute. Green Developments. 1997 (CD ROM).

Sheppard, Adrian. Defining a New Arts Building: Architectural Design Guidelines and Program Statement. August 2000.




. school of architecture . mcgill university .